Causes Of Allergies and Hay Fever

Causes Of Allergies and Hay Fever

Asthma (hay fever) is an allergic reaction to allergens, microscopic airborne particles that cause itching and runny eyes. A natural substance called histamine is released by your body when you inhale allergens through your nose or mouth. 

Hay fever is brought on by various allergens, both indoors and out. Mould, dust mites, pollen, and pet dander are common aggravating factors.

Throat, mouth, and nose allergies are very common in individuals who suffer from hay fever. Infectious rhinitis, or a cold, is not the same as allergic rhinitis, and hay fever does not spread from person to person.

Causes Of Allergic Rhinitis

Your body's immune system reacts to an allergen in the air, resulting in allergic rhinitis. You may readily inhale the allergens (irritants) through your nose or mouth since they are so tiny.

The vast majority of people are unaffected by common allergens. However, if you suffer from hay fever, your immune system interprets this as an invasion. 

The immune system releases natural substances into your circulation to defend your body. Histamine is the chemical name for the primary component. It causes mucous membranes in the nose, eyes, and throat to become irritated and irritating as they struggle to evacuate the allergen.

It is possible that many different types of allergens, such as the microscopic creatures found in carpets and other soft furnishings (such as pillows and sheets), might trigger seasonal or year-round allergies. Other causes might include; 

  • Tree, grass, and weed pollen.
  • Allergens produced by pets (tiny flakes of dead skin).
  • The presence of mould spores.
  • Cockroaches, as well as their saliva and excrement.

Food allergies can also cause inflammation of the nose and throat. The sooner you seek medical attention for an allergic response, the better. Food allergies can be deadly.

Symptoms Of Allergic Rhinitis

Symptoms of hay fever can arise at any time of year. Spring, summer, and early fall are the worst times for outdoor allergies. Weeds and flowers grow in the spring, and pollen levels rise. Because individuals spend more time indoors during the winter, allergies caused by pet dander and dust mites may worsen.

Hay fever symptoms include nasal congestion, sneezing, runny nose, and itchy eyes, throat, and nose. Other symptoms include; 

  • Migraines, nasal pressure, and puffy eyes
  • Nasal and throat mucus production increases
  • Tiredness and ill health (general feeling of discomfort)
  • Inflammation of the tonsils and pharynx (postnasal drip)
  • Breathing problems, wheezing, coughing

Diagnosis

Your doctor will do a thorough examination, inquire about your symptoms, and rule out other disorders, such as a cold or asthma that might be causing your symptoms. 

A blood sample may be taken by your doctor and sent to a laboratory for testing to determine your body's antibodies to specific allergens. The immunoglobulin E (IgE) test is given for this type of blood test. A food allergy can be detected, and any other sort of allergy.

Skin Prick Test

Your doctor may suggest a skin prick test to determine which allergens are causing your symptoms. The results are accurate and painless, but they might be painful. 

The allergens are applied to your skin (typically on your forearm or back) and then scratched or pricked with a needle by your healthcare professional. The allergen can penetrate the skin via scratching.

You'll notice redness, irritation, and swelling within 15-30 minutes if you're allergic to the allergen. Wheals, or raised, hive-like welts, may appear as an allergic reaction manifests itself. To find out which allergens are causing your symptoms, a skin prick test is an effective and safe option.

Treatment

Hay fever can be made tolerable by using a variety of allergy drugs. There are various therapeutic options available, including eye drops, nasal sprays, injections, and liquids and tablets. 

Consult your doctor before taking any drug, especially if you're expecting a child or have other health issues. Your healthcare practitioner may advise you to:

Antihistamines

Antihistamines can be purchased over the counter or with a prescription. They operate by preventing your body from releasing histamine in response to an allergic reaction. It is possible to buy antihistamines in tablets, liquids, eye drops, nasal sprays, and inhalers. One of the best antihistaminic drugs is Allevia Fexofenadine. 

Antihistamines have the potential to make you sleepy. When taking antihistamines, do not drink alcohol, especially if you plan to drive.

Decongestants

Decongestants can induce high blood pressure, headaches, restlessness, and irritability, among other side effects. If taken for more than five days, nasal decongestants might become habit-forming. Take them only after consulting with your healthcare provider.

Inflammation-inducing substances

Due to an allergic reaction, the body releases histamines, leukotrienes, and other inflammation-inducing substances. These leukotriene-blocking tablets are only available via prescription. 

Montelukast is the most often prescribed leukotriene inhibitor. Some people report mood swings, vivid nightmares, involuntary muscular movements, and skin rash when using this drug.

Immunotherapy

Using immunotherapy, you can learn to tolerate allergens by teaching your body how to do so. Allergy shots are a series of injections administered by your healthcare practitioner that each contains a small quantity of the allergen. When you get an injection, the allergen concentration is increased. Your immune system becomes immune to the allergen over time and no longer reacts to it in the same way.

Your doctor may recommend Under-the-tongue pills as an immunotherapy option.

Prevention

Hay fever cannot be prevented, but you may learn to cope with the symptoms by making a few alterations to your daily routine. Hay fever symptoms can be alleviated by avoiding irritants to the greatest extent feasible. 

Symptoms can be reduced by:

  • Make sure you don't irritate your eyes or nose by touching your face.
  • Pollen levels are more significant in the spring, summer, and early fall, so it's good to keep windows closed.
  • Pillow, mattress, and box spring dust mite coverings should be used.
  • If you don't want your dogs to get into your bedrooms, keep them out of the sofas and beds and keep the doors closed.
  • If you have allergies, it is best to keep your vacuum cleaner and air conditioner filters clean.
  • Use hand sanitiser frequently, especially after coming into contact with animals.
  • Wear a hat and sunglasses to protect your eyes from pollen when you're outside. As soon as you go back inside, change into dry clothing.

Prognosis

Hay fever can be debilitating, but it is not life-threatening. Most persons with hay fever can keep their symptoms under control with dietary adjustments and over-the-counter remedies.

Airborne Allergies

Ear and sinus infections are more common in those with airborne allergies. The inability to get a decent night's sleep due to hay fever may lead you to be weary during the day, and asthma symptoms might worsen if you have hay fever.

Your doctor should screen out other illnesses, including asthma, even if hay fever doesn't pose a health risk. If hay fever symptoms interfere with your everyday activities or prevent you from obtaining a good night's sleep, you should seek medical attention. Your healthcare practitioner can identify and treat the allergens causing your symptoms.

The Bottom Line

Numerous effective treatments help you alleviate hay fever symptoms and improve your condition. People around the globe are now able to efficiently manage hay fever, thanks to appropriate medication and dietary adjustments. Always consult your doctor about your symptoms.